Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Line an 8x8-inch square pan with foil, extending the sides of the foil over the edges of the pan. Spray the foil liberally with cooking spray. Trust me, you will want to line with foil and spray with cooking spray for easy removal later!
In a medium bowl, mix together the melted butter, brown sugar, vanilla extract, flour, oats, and baking soda with a spoon until combined. Press half of the mixture into the prepared pan in an even layer. Bake for 10-12 minutes or until light golden brown. Remove from oven but keep oven on.
While the crust bakes, in a small saucepan combine the caramels and heavy cream over medium-low heat, stirring occasionally until melted and smooth. Set aside.
Sprinkle the chocolate chips evenly over the crust. Pour the caramel over the chocolate chip layer. Crumble the remaining oatmeal cookie dough over the caramel layer evenly. Return to the oven and bake for an additional 15-20 minutes or until the top is golden brown and the caramel is just about set. It may jiggle a little, but should not be sloshing around in the pan. Cool completely at room temperature, then refrigerate to set for at least 1-2 hours. Let bars come to room temperature before consuming, as cold caramel is not great for teeth!